Past Participle

The past participle is a form of a verb used in the perfect tenses: present perfect (I have ______), past perfect (I had ______), and future perfect (I will have ______). The form of the verb in the blanks, following “have,” is the past participle.

We form the past participle by dropping the infinitive’s ending and adding either –ado for AR verbs, or –ido for ER and IR verbs. That’s it! Simple as that.

Let’s take a look at some examples:

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cocinar cocinado cooked
manejar manejado driven
estar estado been
comer comido eaten
ir ido gone
ser sido been
vivir vivido lived

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There are a few verbs with irregular past participles. Here are the more common ones:

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hacer hecho done
decir dicho said
escribir escrito written
describir descrito described
freir frito fried
volver vuelto returned/come back
devolver devuelto returned
resolver resuelto resolved
morir muerto died
poner puesto put
abrir abierto opened
romper roto broken
ver visto seen

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